CITY OF TORONTO
A By-law respecting animals.
WHEREAS section 210 of the Municipal Act authorizes a municipality to pass by-laws respecting animals and birds; and
WHEREAS section 220.1 of the Municipal Act authorizes a municipality to pass by-laws imposing fees or charges on any class of person;
The Council of the City of Toronto HEREBY ENACTS as follows:
1. In this by-law,
"animal" means all species of fauna excluding humans;
"animal centre" means a facility operated by or for the City of Toronto for the keeping and disposition of stray
and admitted animals;
"bite" means piercing or puncturing the skin as a result of contact with a dog's tooth or teeth;
"cat" means a feline of the species Felis cattus;
"City" means City of Toronto;
"Council" means City of Toronto Council;
"dog" means a canine of the species Canis familiaris;
"dwelling unit" means one room or a group of rooms, occupied or capable of being occupied as the home or
residence of one or more persons, and containing only one kitchen or other facility for the preparation of
"ferret" means a ferret of the species Mustela putoriusfuro;
"keep" means to have temporary or permanent control or possesion of an animal and keeping has the same
"Medical Officer of Health" means the Medical Officer of Health for the City of Toronto Health Unit or any
person acting under his or her authority;
"microchip" means an approved Canadian standard, encoded identification device implanted into an animal,
which contains a unique code that permits or facilitates access to owner information, including the name and
address of the owner, which is stored in a central database accessible to the Medical Officer of Health;
"muzzle" means a humane fastening or covering device of adequate strength over the mouth to prevent a dog
"owner" means a person or persons who possess, harbour, or have custody of an animal and where the owner is
a minor, the person responsible for the custody of the minor;
"pigeon" means any of the widely distributed family (Columbidae, order Columbiiformes) of birds and shall
include every variety of rock doves and ring turtledoves;
"police work dog" means a dog trained for and actually engaged in law enforcement by any Federal, Provincial
or Municipal government agency;
"protective care" means the temporary keeping of an animal to a maximum of five (5) days, as a result of an
eviction, encarceration, medical or fire emergency or any other situation that the Medical Officer of Health
"rabbit" means a European rabbit of the species Oryctolagus cuniculus;
"trespass" means being found on any property other than that of the owner of the animal except where the
owner of the property expressly permits the animal to be on his or her property.
2. (1) No person shall keep, on either a temporary or permanent basis, any prohibited animal in the
(2) For the purposes of subsection (1), prohibited animals are those classes of animals listed in
3. Section 2 does not apply to:
1.The premises of a City animal centre.
2.The premises of an affiliated or a branch of the Ontario Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to
3.The premises of a veterinary hospital under the care of a licensed veterinarian.
4.The premises of the Toronto Zoo.
5.The premises of facilities accredited by the Canadian Association of Zoological Aquaria (CAZA).
6.The areas of the City in which professionally produced films are being made by film professionals and
recognized film production companies, if the animals are owned by institutions accredited by the
Canadian Association of Zoological Aquariums and only during filming.
7.The areas of the City in which educational programs are being conducted with animals, if the animals
are owned by institutions accredited by the Canadian Association of Zoological Aquariums or the
American Zoo and Aquarium Association and only while the educational programs are being conducted,
provided that such programs be limited to a maximum of three days in any one location.
8.Premises registered as research facilities pursuant to the Animals for Research Act, R.S.O. 1990,
9.The premises of slaughter houses licensed pursuant to the Meat Inspection Act, R.S.O. 1990, c.M.5.
10.The premises of the Toronto Police Department.
11.Domesticated Ungulates of the families Artiodactylus and Perissodactylus, Anseriformes, Galliformes
a.on lands owned and operated by the City listed in Schedule B; or
b.on lands zoned agriculture.
4. Subject to section 17, no person shall keep in any dwelling unit more than six (6) or any combination of dogs,
cats, ferrets and rabbits except that any person who, on date of passage of this by-law, was lawfully keeping
more than six (6) of any combination of dogs, cats, ferrets and rabbits until they have died or are otherwise
CARE OF ANIMALS
5. Every person who keeps an animal within the City's boundaries shall provide the animal or cause it to be
provided with adequate and appropriate care, food, water, exercise, attention and veterinary care as may be
required from time to time to keep it in good health.
6. If an animal is customarily kept out of doors, the person having the custody or control of the animal shall
provide for its use at all times a structurally sufficient, weatherproofed and insulated enclosure of appropriate
size and dimension.
7. (1) No person shall keep any animal in the City tethered on a chain, a rope or a similar
restraining device of less than three (3) metres in length.
(2) Every person who has tethered an animal shall ensure the animal has unrestricted movement within the
range of the tether.
8. (1) No person shall keep an animal within the City in an unsanitary condition.
(2) For the purposes of subsection (1), an animal is kept in an unsanitary condition where the keeping of the
animal results in an accumulation of faecal matter, an odour, insect infestation or rodent attractants
which endanger the health of any person or animal, or which disturbs or is likely to disturb the
enjoyment, comfort or convenience of any person.
9. (1) Where an animal is sheltered at a City animal centre for protective care, a per diem sheltering fee shall be
paid to the Medical Officer of Health in advance of redeeming the animal by the owner in the amount
specified in Schedule C.
(2) Where an animal is not redeemed at the end of the protective care period, it shall be treated as an
Canidae (such as coyotes, wolves, foxes, hybrid wolf dogs) except dogs
Cetacea (such as beluga whales, orca whales, dolphins)
Chiroptera (bats such as fruit bats, myotis, flying foxes)
Edentates (such as anteaters, sloths, armadillos)
Felidae (such as tigers, leopards, cougars) except cats
Hyaenidae (such as hyaenes)
Insectibora (such as hedgehogs and shrews)
Lagomorpha (such as rabbits, hares, pikas) except domesticated European rabbits and crosses thereof
Marsupials (such as kangaroos, opossums, wallabies, sugar gliders)
Mustelidae (such as mink, skunk, weasels, otters, badgers) except a ferret
Pinnipedia (such as seals, sea lions, walruses)
Procyonidae (such as raccoons, coatimundi, cacomistles)
Rodentia (such as chinchillas, porcupines, flying squirrels, prairie dogs, woodchucks, pocket gophers and kangaroo rats) except domesticated Norway
rat, Black rat, House mouse, gerbils, hamsters and guinea pigs
Sirenia (such as manatees, dugongs)
Ungulates Artidactylus (such as cattle, goats, sheep, pot bellied pigs)
Ungulates Perissodactylus (such as horses, donkeys, jackasses, mules)
Anseriformes (such as ducks, geese, swans, scremers)
Apodiformes (such as swifts, tree-swifts, hummingbirds)
Caprimulgiformes (such as whip-poor-will, nighthawks, oilbird)
Charadriiformes (such as gulls, terns, oystercatchers, Ibisbill, stone-curlews, plovers, sandpipers, snipe, puffins and guillernots)
Ciconiiformes (such as herons, storks, shoebill, ibises, spoonbills)
Columbiiformes (such as pigeons, doves, sandgrouse) except domesticated species such as the Rock Dove (Columbia livia) and Ringed Turtle Dove
Coraciiformes (such as king fishers, bee-eaters, rollers, hornbills)
Cuculiformes (such as turacos, cuckoos including roadrunners, couells, anis)
Falconaformes (diurnal raptors such as vultures, condors, hawks, falcons, ospreys, eagles)
Galliformes (such as pheasants, grouse, guineafowls, turkeys)
Gaviiformes (loons or divers)
Gruiformes (such as cranes, trumpeters, rails, crakes, coots, moorhens)
Passeriformes (such as swallows, martins, wrens, mockingbirds, chickadees, nuthatchers, cardinals, orioles, meadowlark, finches, sparrows, starlings,
crows, jays, ravens) except species derived from self-sustaining captive population such as canaries, mynahs and finches.
Pelecanaformes (such as pelicans, gannets, cormorants, anhingus, frigatebirds)
Piciformes (such as toucans, woodpeckers)
Procellariiformes (sea birds such as albatrosses, petrels, shearwaters)
Psittaciformes taken from the wild (such as parrots, lories, cockatoos, lovebirds, parakeets, macaws) except domestic species derived from self
sustaining captive populations such as cockatiels and budgerigars
Sphenisciformes (such as penguins)
Strigiformes (such as owls)
Struthioniformes (flightless rattites such as ostriches, rheas, cassowaries, emus, kiwis)
Tinamiformes (other rattites known as tinamous such as crested tinamou)
Trogoniformes (trogons including the quetzals)
Crocodylia (such as alligators, crocodiles, Gavials)
Squamata (such as lizards, snakes) which are larger than 1 metre and of the families
Anomalephididae (blind snakes)
Atractaspididae (mole vipers)
Boidae (such as boa, python, anaconda) which may grow larger than 2 metres
Colubridae (such as mangrove snakes, Island racers, glossy snakes)
Crdylidae (such as Spiny tail lizards)
Dibamidae (such as Blind Skinks, Mexican Blind Lizard)
Elapidae (such as Peron's Seasnake, Desert Death Adder, Bardick Snake)
Gekkonidae (only the Tokay geeko)
Gymnophthalmidae (such as Arthrossaura, Bachia, Microteiid, Tegu, Neusticurus)
Helodermidae (Gila Monsters)
Iguanidae (only iguana iguana)
Teiidae (such as teiids, ameiva, whiptail, lightbulb lizards)
Viperidae (such as Cantil, Puff adder, Green Bush Viper, Prairie Rattlesnake)
Testudines (turtles and tortoises)
Anura of the families Ascaphidae (Tailed Frog)
Dendrobatidae (such as Skunk frog, Blue Poison Frog)
Leiopelmatidae (such as Coromandel New Zealand Frog)
Rhinodermatidae (such as Darwin's Frog, Mexican Burrowing Toad)
Sooglossidae (such as Tomasset's Frog, Seychelles Frog)
Caudata of the family Cryptobranchidae (such as hellbenders, Chinese Giant Salamander)
Arachnids (such as scorpions, trarantulas)
All venomous reptiles, amphibians and Invertebrates
Animals not indigenous to Canada that have been taken from the wild at any stage of development including eggs or embryos.
All species of fauna which have been classified as endangered or threatened with extinction by any one of the Committee on the Status of Endangered
Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC), Appendix 1 of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) or the International Union for
the Conservation of Nature (IUCN).